1. Evolution describes a biological process where change in the heritable traits of a population over successive generations, is determined by shifts in the allele frequencies of genes. Over time, this process can result in speciation, the development of new species from existing ones. All contemporary organisms are related to each other through common descent, the products of cumulative evolutionary changes over billions of years.
2. Natural selection describes a biological process by which individual organisms with unfavorable traits are less likely to survive and reproduce than those with favorable traits. Natural selection works on the whole individual, but only the heritable component of a trait will be passed on to the offspring, with the result that favorable, heritable traits become more common in the next generation. Given enough time, this passive process can result in adaptations and speciation. Natural selection is the "engine" of evolution.
3. Artificial selection describes the deliberate human manipulation of a biological process. It is driven by a human agenda. It is the process where intentional or unintentional modification of a species through human actions will encourage the breeding of certain traits over others. It was originally defined by Charles Darwin in contrast to the process of natural selection, in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival and reproductive ability in the natural habitat of the organism. Artifial selection is the OPPOSITE of natural selection.
4. Selective breeding also describes a biological process with a human agenda where the process of intentional or unintentional modification of a species through human actions will encourage the breeding of certain traits over others. Selective breeding is a form of artifical selection. It is a process where human beings use their knowledge of bloodline, strain and inbreeding to facilitate the weeding-out of undesired characteristics and the fixation of desired traits in domesticated animals. Inbreeding and linebreeding are controversial aspects of artificial selection, but have been practiced for centuries.
5. "Survival of the fittest" describes a social philosophy which attempts to explain human social progress. It was coined by Herbert Spencer. Spencer tried to draw parallels to his ideas of economics, politics and sociology with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. "Survival of the fittest" used in this way, is not a biological term describing the process of natural selection, but a sociological term used in an attempt to explain social, political and cultural changes.
6. Eugenics describes a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of human intervention. The purported goals have variously been to create healthier, more intelligent people, save society's resources, and lessen human suffering. Earlier proposed means of achieving these goals focused on selective breeding, while modern ones focus on prenatal testing and screening, genetic counseling, birth control, in vitro fertilization, and genetic engineering.
7. Social Darwinism describes a social philosophy which claims that just as competition between individual organisms drives biological evolutionary change (speciation), competition between individuals or groups in human societies drives social evolution. "Survival of the fittest" is the "engine" of Social Darwinism.
Artifical selection, selective breeding, eugenics and social darwinism are models of human political, social, economic or cultural intentionality. Human beings have opinions on what constitute favourable genetic traits and sometimes they use scientific knowledge in order to create outcomes which suit their political, social or cultural desires. In other words, they attempt to predetermine according to their own prejudices or biases traits or behaviours which they deem to be favourable.
Natural selection does not have a predetermined human opinion concerning that which is a favourable trait. Mutations may be favourable or unfavourable depending on the environment. Nor does natural selection have a predetermined human opinion about what constitutes a favourable or an unfavourable trait, or a moral or an immoral trait, characteristic or behaviour. Natural selection occurs without a human preconceived idea of the end result. In other words, natural selection does not occur because humans wish or will it to occur. It occurs outside of human intentionality. It occurs in the same way that the planets rotate regardless of our intentionality, gravity occurs outside of our intentionality, and photosynthesis occurs outside of our intentionality.
Scientific processes, like natural selection, are morally, politically, culturally and economically neutral. Human beings are not. No one assumes that gravity occurs because of human intent. It is evidenced regardless of our intent. Likewise, the description of a natural process like natural selection, does NOT include a human moral, political, social, economic or cultural opinion about that process NOR about the result of that process.
For example: - The scientific description of the process of photosynthesis does not include the human opinion that green plants are better, so therefore we should wipe out all the plants which are not green. Photosynthesis merely describes the process whereby sugar is synthesized in the presence of light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product. It takes a human driven agenda to decide that by interfering with the process of photosynthesis, we could kill off all the green plants.
Similarly, the scientific decription of the process of natural selection, does not include the human opinion that Aryans are better, so therefore we should wipe out all the people who are not Aryan. It takes a human driven agenda based in a political, social, cultural, or religious intention to do that. Artificial selection is the engine of human intention; not natural selection.
Natural selection is NOT eugenics, artifical selection, or selective breeding. It is the process described by darwin which is demonstrated by the change in the heritable traits of a population over successive generations, as determined by shifts in the allele frequencies of genes.
Mankind deliberately tinkering with genetic information is not an example of natural selection as described by Darwin. It is an example of artificial selection, whereby genes are selected for characteristics not based upon a naturally occuring selection process. Certainly, neither eugenics, nor artifical selection, fit the description of evolution and natural selection espoused by Darwin.
That mankind can produce a cloned animal, is NOT an example of natural selection. It is an example of man using genetic knowledge to predetermine a desired result. That mankind can use a system of eugenics against those who they arbitarily consider "unfit"; is also NOT an example of natural selection. It is an example of the use of genetic knowledge in order to prejudicially determine "fitness."
These observed natural processes, like natural selection and photosynthesis are impartial or neutral to human needs, desires and wants. Observed natural processes have no human agenda unless human beings attempt to ascribe, or create one for it.
How human beings interpret, apply and use information is controversial and is potentially much more controversial than the information itself.
"Science commits suicide when it adopts a creed." ~Thomas Henry Huxley